Glossery of Terms
Ruptured Cruciate Ligament – The anterior cruciate ligament is an important, internal, stabilizer of the knee joint, restraining hyperextension.
Hyperparathyroidism – Overactivity of the parathyroid glands resulting in excess production of parathyroid hormone (PTH). The parathyroid hormone regulates calcium and phosphate levels and helps to maintain these levels
Von Willebrand disease – The most common hereditary coagulation abnormality. It arises from a qualitative or quantitative deficiency of von Willebrand factor (vWF), a multimeric protein that is required for platelet adhesion. It is known to affect humans and dogs (notably Doberman Pinschers), and rarely swine, cattle, horses, and cats.
Hemophilia – A group of hereditary genetic disorders that impair the body's ability to control blood clotting or coagulation, which is used to stop bleeding when a blood vessel is broken.
Hip Dysplasia – An abnormal formation of the hip socket that, in its more severe form, can eventually cause crippling lameness and painful arthritis of the joints.
Elbow dysplasia – A condition involving multiple developmental abnormalities of the elbow-joint in the dog, specifically the growth of cartilage or the structures surrounding it.
OCD (osteochondritis dissecans) – often abbreviated to OCD or OD, is a joint disorder in which cracks form in the articular cartilage and the underlying subchondral bone.
Legg-Perthes disease – A hip disorder initiated by a disruption of blood flow to the ball of the femur called the femoral head. Due to the lack of blood flow, the bone dies and stops growing.
Wobbler disease – A catchall term referring to several possible malformations of the cervical vertebrae that cause an unsteady (wobbly) gait and weakness in dogs and horses.
Luxating patella – A condition in which the patella, or kneecap, dislocates or moves out of its normal location. Patellar luxation is a common condition in dogs, particularly small and miniature breeds.
Osteoarthritis (OA) – A group of mechanical abnormalities involving degradation of joints, including articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Symptoms may include joint pain, tenderness, stiffness, locking, and sometimes an effusion.
Lyme disease – An infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia. It is transmitted via the bite of an infected tick. The rash is rarely painful or itchy, although it may be warm to the touch. Left untreated, later symptoms may involve the joints, heart, and central nervous system
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) – A chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that primarily affects joints. It may result in deformed and painful joints, which can lead to loss of function.
Cauda equina syndrome (CES) – A serious neurologic condition in which damage to the cauda equina causes acute loss of function of the lumbar plexus, (nerve roots) of the spinal canal below the termination of the spinal cord.
Osteosarcoma – A cancerous bone tumor.